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Irregular Verbs(Including Rare Verb Forms)

This is's Extended Irregular Verb Dictionary, which contains over 470 irregular verbs including some rare and antiquated forms which are not used in modern English. To remove the rare and antiquated forms, Click Here.

List of Irregular Verbs

Base Form Simple Past Past Participle
abide abided / abode abided
alight alighted / alit alighted / alit
arise arose arisen
awake awakened / awoke awakened / awoken
backbite backbit backbitten
backslide backslid backslidden / backslid
be [am, is, are] was, were been
bear bore born / borne
beat beat beaten / beat
become became become
befall befell befallen
beget begat / begot begotten
begin began begun
behold beheld beheld
bend bent bent
bereave bereaved / bereft bereaved / bereft
beseech besought / beseeched besought / beseeched
beset beset beset
bestrew bestrewed bestrewn / bestrewed
bet bet / betted [?] bet / betted [?]
betake betook betaken
bethink bethought bethought
bid (farewell) bid / bade bidden
bid (offer amount) bid bid
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast / broadcasted broadcast / broadcasted
browbeat browbeat browbeaten / browbeat
build built built
burn burned / burnt [?] burned / burnt [?]
burst burst burst
bust busted / bust busted / bust
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
chide chided / chid chided / chidden
choose chose chosen
clap clapped / clapt [?] clapped / clapt [?]
cling clung clung
clothe clothed / clad [?] clothed / clad [?]
colorbreed colorbred colorbred
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
crossbreed crossbred crossbred
cut cut cut
dare dared / durst dared / durst
daydream daydreamed / daydreamt [?] daydreamed / daydreamt [?]
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
dight dighted / dight dighted / dight
disprove disproved disproved / disproven
dive (jump head-first) dove / dived dived
dive (scuba diving) dived / dove dived
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamed / dreamt [?] dreamed / dreamt [?]
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
dwell dwelt / dwelled [?] dwelt / dwelled [?]
eat ate eaten
enwind enwound enwound
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fit (tailor, change size) fitted / fit [?] fitted / fit [?]
fit (be right size) fit / fitted [?] fit / fitted [?]
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbear forbore forborne
forbid forbade forbidden
fordo fordid fordone
forecast forecast forecast
forego (also forgo) forewent foregone
foreknow foreknew foreknown
forerun foreran forerun
foresee foresaw foreseen
foreshow foreshowed foreshown / foreshowed
forespeak forespoke forespoken
foretell foretold foretold
forget forgot forgotten / forgot [?]
forgive forgave forgiven
forsake forsook forsaken
forswear forswore forsworn
fraught fraught fraught
freeze froze frozen
frostbite frostbit frostbitten
gainsay gainsaid gainsaid
get got gotten / got [?]
gild gilded / gilt gilded / gilt
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hagride hagrode hagridden
halterbreak halterbroke halterbroken
hamstring hamstrung hamstrung
hand-feed hand-fed hand-fed
handwrite handwrote handwritten
hang hung hung
hang (kill by hanging) hanged / hung hanged / hung
have had had
hear heard heard
heave heaved / hove heaved / hove
hew hewed hewn / hewed
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
inbreed inbred inbred
inlay inlaid inlaid
input input / inputted input / inputted
inset inset inset
interbreed interbred interbred
intercut intercut intercut
interlay interlaid interlaid
interset interset interset
interweave interwove / interweaved interwoven / interweaved
interwind interwound interwound
inweave inwove / inweaved inwoven / inweaved
jerry-build jerry-built jerry-built
keep kept kept
kneel knelt / kneeled knelt / kneeled
knit knitted / knit knitted / knit
know knew known
lade laded laden / laded
landslide landslid landslid
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leaned / leant [?] leaned / leant [?]
leap leaped / leapt [?] leaped / leapt [?]
learn learned / learnt [?] learned / learnt [?]
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
lie (not tell truth) REGULAR lied lied
light lit / lighted lit / lighted
lip-read lip-read lip-read
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
misbecome misbecame misbecome
miscast miscast miscast
miscut miscut miscut
misdeal misdealt misdealt
misdo misdid misdone
mishear misheard misheard
mishit mishit mishit
mislay mislaid mislaid
mislead misled misled
mislearn mislearned / mislearnt [?] mislearned / mislearnt [?]
misread misread misread
missay missaid missaid
missend missent missent
misset misset misset
misspeak misspoke misspoken
misspell misspelled / misspelt [?] misspelled / misspelt [?]
misspend misspent misspent
misswear misswore missworn
mistake mistook mistaken
misteach mistaught mistaught
mistell mistold mistold
misthink misthought misthought
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood
miswear miswore misworn
miswed miswed / miswedded miswed / miswedded
miswrite miswrote miswritten
mow mowed mowed / mown
No irregular verbs beginning with "N."
offset offset offset
outbid outbid outbid
outbreed outbred outbred
outdo outdid outdone
outdraw outdrew outdrawn
outdrink outdrank outdrunk
outdrive outdrove outdriven
outfight outfought outfought
outfly outflew outflown
outgrow outgrew outgrown
outlay outlaid outlaid
outleap outleaped / outleapt [?] outleaped / outleapt [?]
outlie (not tell truth) REGULAR outlied outlied
output output / outputted output / outputted
outride outrode outridden
outrun outran outrun
outsee outsaw outseen
outsell outsold outsold
outshine outshined / outshone [?] outshined / outshone [?]
outshoot outshot outshot
outsing outsang outsung
outsit outsat outsat
outsleep outslept outslept
outsmell outsmelled / outsmelt [?] outsmelled / outsmelt [?]
outspeak outspoke outspoken
outspeed outsped outsped
outspend outspent outspent
outspin outspun outspun
outspring outsprang / outsprung outsprung
outstand outstood outstood
outswear outswore outsworn
outswim outswam outswum
outtell outtold outtold
outthink outthought outthought
outthrow outthrew outthrown
outwear outwore outworn
outwind outwound outwound
outwrite outwrote outwritten
overbear overbore overborne / overborn
overbid overbid overbid
overbreed overbred overbred
overbuild overbuilt overbuilt
overbuy overbought overbought
overcast overcast overcast
overcome overcame overcome
overcut overcut overcut
overdo overdid overdone
overdraw overdrew overdrawn
overdrink overdrank overdrunk
overeat overate overeaten
overfeed overfed overfed
overhang overhung overhung
overhear overheard overheard
overlay overlaid overlaid
overleap overleaped / overleapt [?] overleaped / overleapt [?]
overlie overlay overlain
overpay overpaid overpaid
override overrode overridden
overrun overran overrun
oversee oversaw overseen
oversell oversold oversold
overset overset overset
oversew oversewed oversewn / oversewed
overshoot overshot overshot
oversleep overslept overslept
oversow oversowed oversown / oversowed
overspeak overspoke overspoken
overspend overspent overspent
overspill overspilled / overspilt [?] overspilled / overspilt [?]
overspin overspun overspun
overspread overspread overspread
overspring oversprang / oversprung / oversprung
overstand overstood overstood
overstrew overstrewed overstrewn / overstrewed
overstride overstrode overstridden
overstrike overstruck overstruck
overtake overtook overtaken
overthink overthought overthought
overthrow overthrew overthrown
overwear overwore overworn
overwind overwound overwound
overwrite overwrote overwritten
partake partook partaken
pay paid paid
plead pleaded / pled pleaded / pled
prebuild prebuilt prebuilt
predo predid predone
premake premade premade
prepay prepaid prepaid
presell presold presold
preset preset preset
preshrink preshrank preshrunk
presplit presplit presplit
proofread proofread proofread
prove proved proven / proved
put put put
quick-freeze quick-froze quick-frozen
quit quit / quitted [?] quit / quitted [?]
read read (sounds like "red") read (sounds like "red")
reawake reawoke reawaken
rebid rebid rebid
rebind rebound rebound
rebroadcast rebroadcast / rebroadcasted rebroadcast / rebroadcasted
rebuild rebuilt rebuilt
recast recast recast
recut recut recut
redeal redealt redealt
redo redid redone
redraw redrew redrawn
reeve reeved / rove reeved / rove
refit (replace parts) refit / refitted [?] refit / refitted [?]
refit (retailor) refitted / refit [?] refitted / refit [?]
regrind reground reground
regrow regrew regrown
rehang rehung rehung
rehear reheard reheard
reknit reknitted / reknit reknitted / reknit
relay (for example tiles) relaid relaid
relay (pass along) REGULAR relayed relayed
relearn relearned / relearnt [?] relearned / relearnt [?]
relight relit / relighted relit / relighted
remake remade remade
rend rent / rended rent / rended
repay repaid repaid
reread reread reread
rerun reran rerun
resell resold resold
resend resent resent
reset reset reset
resew resewed resewn / resewed
retake retook retaken
reteach retaught retaught
retear retore retorn
retell retold retold
rethink rethought rethought
retread retread retread
retrofit retrofitted / retrofit [?] retrofitted / retrofit [?]
rewake rewoke / rewaked rewaken / rewaked
rewear rewore reworn
reweave rewove / reweaved rewoven / reweaved
rewed rewed / rewedded rewed / rewedded
rewet rewet / rewetted [?] rewet / rewetted [?]
rewin rewon rewon
rewind rewound rewound
rewrite rewrote rewritten
rid rid rid
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
rive rived riven / rived
roughcast roughcast roughcast
run ran run
sand-cast sand-cast sand-cast
saw sawed sawed / sawn
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
self-feed self-fed self-fed
self-sow self-sowed self-sown / self-sowed
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn / sewed
shake shook shaken
shave shaved shaved / shaven
shear sheared sheared / shorn
shed shed shed
shine shined / shone [?] shined / shone [?]
shit shit / shat / shitted shit / shat / shitted
shoe shoed / shod shoed / shod
shoot shot shot
show showed shown / showed
shrink shrank / shrunk shrunk
shrive shrived / shrove shriven
shut shut shut
sight-read sight-read sight-read
sing sang sung
sink sank / sunk sunk
sit sat sat
skywrite skywrote skywritten
slay (kill) slew / slayed slain / slayed
slay (amuse) REGULAR slayed slayed
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
sling slung slung
slink slinked / slunk slinked / slunk
slit slit slit
smell smelled / smelt [?] smelled / smelt [?]
smite smote smitten / smote
sneak sneaked / snuck sneaked / snuck
sow sowed sown / sowed
speak spoke spoken
speed sped / speeded sped / speeded
spell spelled / spelt [?] spelled / spelt [?]
spend spent spent
spill spilled / spilt [?] spilled / spilt [?]
spin spun spun
spit spit / spat spit / spat
split split split
spoil spoiled / spoilt [?] spoiled / spoilt [?]
spoon-feed spoon-fed spoon-fed
spread spread spread
spring sprang / sprung sprung
stall-feed stall-fed stall-fed
stand stood stood
stave staved / stove staved / stove
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stunk / stank stunk
strew strewed strewn / strewed
stride strode stridden
strike (delete) struck stricken
strike (hit) struck struck / stricken
string strung strung
strip stripped / stript [?] stripped / stript [?]
strive strove / strived striven / strived
sublet sublet sublet
sunburn sunburned / sunburnt [?] sunburned / sunburnt [?]
swear swore sworn
sweat sweat / sweated sweat / sweated
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swollen / swelled
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
telecast telecast telecast
tell told told
test-drive test-drove test-driven
test-fly test-flew test-flown
think thought thought
thrive thrived / throve thrived / thriven
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden / trod
troubleshoot troubleshot troubleshot
typecast typecast typecast
typeset typeset typeset
typewrite typewrote typewritten
unbear unbore unborn / unborne
unbend unbent unbent
unbind unbound unbound
unbuild unbuilt unbuilt
unclothe unclothed / unclad [?] unclothed / unclad [?]
underbid underbid underbid
underbuy underbought underbought
undercut undercut undercut
underfeed underfed underfed
undergo underwent undergone
underlay underlaid underlaid
underlet underlet underlet
underlie underlay underlain
underrun underran underrun
undersell undersold undersold
undershoot undershot undershot
underspend underspent underspent
understand understood understood
undertake undertook undertaken
underthrust underthrust underthrust
underwrite underwrote underwritten
undo undid undone
undraw undrew undrawn
unfreeze unfroze unfrozen
unhang unhung unhung
unhide unhid unhidden
unhold unheld unheld
unknit unknitted / unknit unknitted / unknit
unlade unladed unladen / unladed
unlay unlaid unlaid
unlead  REGULAR unleaded unleaded
unlearn unlearned / unlearnt [?] unlearned / unlearnt [?]
unmake unmade unmade
unreeve unreeved / unrove unreeved / unrove
unsay unsaid unsaid
unsew unsewed unsewn / unsewed
unsling unslung unslung
unspin unspun unspun
unstick unstuck unstuck
unstring unstrung unstrung
unswear unswore unsworn
unteach untaught untaught
unthink unthought unthought
unweave unwove / unweaved unwoven / unweaved
unwind unwound unwound
unwrite unwrote unwritten
uphold upheld upheld
upset upset upset
vex vexed / vext [?] vexed / vext [?]
wake woke / waked woken / waked
waylay waylaid waylaid
wear wore worn
weave wove / weaved woven / weaved
wed wed / wedded wed / wedded
weep wept wept
wet wet / wetted [?] wet / wetted [?]
whet  REGULAR whetted whetted
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
withhold withheld withheld
withstand withstood withstood
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written
No irregular verbs beginning with "X."
No irregular verbs beginning with "Y."
No irregular verbs beginning with "Z."

Irregular Verb Flashcards and Drills

Below, we have created eight sets of flashcards as well as simple irregular verb drills to help English learners learn more than 160 of the most common irregular verbs in English.

Irregular Verb Flashcards 1 Irregular Verb Drill 1
Irregular Verb Flashcards 2 Irregular Verb Drill 2
Irregular Verb Flashcards 3 Irregular Verb Drill 3
Irregular Verb Flashcards 4 Irregular Verb Drill 4
Irregular Verb Flashcards 5 Irregular Verb Drill 5
Irregular Verb Flashcards 6 Irregular Verb Drill 6
Irregular Verb Flashcards 7 Irregular Verb Drill 7
Irregular Verb Flashcards 8 Irregular Verb Drill 8

The 100 Most Common English Irregular Verbs

Download our printable PDF List of the 100 Most Common Irregular Verbs in English. English teachers and trainers, please read our terms of use.

Common Questions about English Irregular Verbs

What are irregular verbs?

Irregular verbs are verbs which do not follow normal rules for conjugation. For example, the irregular verb be has several unique forms (I am, you are, he is) which are quite different from regular verbs such as cook (I cook, you cook, he cooks).

How many irregular verbs are there in English? has conducted an extensive text analysis of over 2,000 novels and resources and we have found 680 irregular verbs so far including prefixed verbs (misunderstand, reread) as well as rare and antiquated forms (colorbreed, bethink).

What are some examples of irregular verbs?

Good examples of irregular verbs include have, understand and draw. Notice that their past forms had, understood and drew are very different from regular verbs, which end with -d or -ed. For more examples, see's list of irregular verbs.

What are the most common irregular verbs in English?

According to's text analysis of over 2,000 novels and resources, the most common irregular verbs in English are: be, have, say, do, know, get, see, think, go and take.

Are there big differences in the irregular verb forms used in British English and American English?

While many references show strong differences between British and American English in irregular verb use,'s research shows that there is far more crossover than many of these references might suggest. (Where we did find a real statistical difference, we have listed the British forms in italics.)

Which verb tenses have irregular forms in English?

In English, irregular verb forms occur in simple present and simple past as well as past participles. Remember that past participles are used in many verb forms including: present perfect, past perfect, future perfect, passive forms and past conditional forms.

More about our Irregular Verb Dictionary

Read about our irregular verb research and how these resources were created.

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